Declaration in Defense of Science and Secularism

At its inaugural press conference on November 14, 2006 the newly established Washington, D.C. office of the Center for Inquiry released the text of a "Declaration in Defense of Science and Secularism." The Declaration is endorsed by over 50 prominent scientists and scholars. This important document serves as a clarion call for improvements in scientific understanding, support of scientific inquiry and the use of secular principles in the formulation of public policy. The text of the Declaration is set forth below:

DECLARATION IN DEFENSE OF SCIENCE AND SECULARISM

We are deeply concerned about the ability of the United States to confront the many challenges it faces, both at home and abroad. Our concern has been compounded by the failure exhibited by far too many Americans, including influential decision-makers, to understand the nature of scientific inquiry and the integrity of empirical research. This disdain for science is aggravated by the excessive influence of religious doctrine on our public policies.

We are concerned with the resurgence of fundamentalist religions across the nation, and their alliance with political-ideological movements to block science. We are troubled by the persistence of paranormal and occult beliefs, and by the denial of the findings of scientific research. This retreat into mysticism is reinforced by the emergence in universities of “post-modernism,” which undermines the objectivity of science.

These disturbing trends can be illustrated by the push for intelligent design (a new name for creationism) and the insistence that it be taught along with evolution. Some 37 states have considered legislation to mandate this. This is both troubling and puzzling since the hypotheses and theories of evolution are central to modern science. The recent federal court decision in the Dover, Pa., case has set back, but not defeated, these efforts. Moreover, the resilience of anti-evolution movements is supported not only by religious dogmatism but also by the abysmal public ignorance of basic scientific principles. Consider these facts:

  • A recent poll by the Pew Research Center revealed that 64% of Americans are open to the idea of teaching intelligent design or creationism in public schools.
  • Some 42% totally reject evolution or believe that present forms of life existed since the beginning of time.
  • 38% would teach only creationism instead of evolutionary theory.
  • Only 26% agree with the predominant scientific view that life evolved by processes of natural selection without the need for divine intervention.
  • The percentage of individuals who accept the theory of evolution is lower in the United States than in any other developed country, with the exception of Turkey.

Recent polls have illustrated other instances of scientific illiteracy:

  • 20% of Americans think that the Sun revolves about the Earth
  • Only 10% know what radiation is
  • Less than one-third can identify DNA as a key to heredity
  • In the U.S., twelfth grade students scored lower than the average of students in 21 other countries in science and math.

We think that these dismal facts portend a clear and present danger to the role of science in the U.S. In our view it is not enough to teach specific technical subjects—important as that is—but to convey to the public a general understanding of how science works. This requires both some comprehension of the methods of scientific inquiry and an understanding of the scientific outlook. The cultivation of critical thinking is essential not only for science but also for an educated citizenry—especially if democracy is to flourish

Unfortunately, not only do too many well-meaning people base their conceptions of the universe on ancient books—such as the Bible and the Koran—rather than scientific inquiry, but politicians of all parties encourage and abet this scientific ignorance. It is vital that the public be exposed to the scientific perspective, and this presupposes the separation of church and state and public policies that are based on secular principles, not religious doctrine. Yet government legislators and executives permit religion, instead of empirical, scientifically supported evidence, to shape public policy. Consider:

  • Embryonic stem cell research, which promises to deliver revolutionary therapies, has been needlessly impeded by the misguided claim that the embryo and/or the first division of cells in a petri dish (blastocyst) is the equivalent of a human person. This is rooted in a moral-theological doctrine that has no basis in science.
  • The nation spends hundreds of millions of dollars on faith-based programs of unproven efficacy, including ill-advised abstinence-only programs in such areas as drug abuse prevention and sex education, which are more successful at promoting misinformation than abstinence.
  • Abstinence policies are advocated abroad and promotion of condom use rejected, heedless of the danger of AIDS and of the need for wise policies aimed to restrain rapid population growth.
  • Scientific evidence of global warming is dismissed and the destruction of other species on the planet is ignored, driven by the misguided view that the Earth has been given to the human species as its dominion.

We cannot hope to convince those in other countries of the dangers of religious fundamentalism when religious fundamentalists influence our policies at home; we cannot hope to convince others that it is wrong to compel women to veil themselves when we deliberately draw a veil over scientific knowledge; we cannot hope to convince others of the follies of sectarianism when we give preferential treatment to religious institutions and practices. A mindset fixed in the Middle Ages cannot possibly hope to meet the challenges of our times.

Science transcends borders and provides the most reliable basis for finding solutions to our problems. We maintain that secular, not religious, principles must govern our public policy. This is not an anti-religious viewpoint; it is a scientific viewpoint. To find common ground, we must reason together, and we can do so only if we are willing to put personal religious beliefs aside when we craft public policy.

For these reasons, we call upon political leaders of all parties:

  • to protect and promote scientific inquiry
  • to base public policy insofar as possible on empirical evidence instead of religious faith
  • to provide an impartial and reliable source of scientific analysis to assist Congress, for example, by reviving the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment
  • to maintain a strict separation between church and state and, in particular, not to permit legislation or executive action to be influenced by religious beliefs.

Science and secularism are inextricably linked and both are indispensable if we are to have sound public policies that will promote the common good, not only of Americans but of the global community.

In-agreement signatures, for the Declaration in Defense of Science and Secularism

  • Baruj Benacerraf, PhD—Nobel Laureate (Physiology and Medicine), Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.
  • Paul Boyer, PhD—Nobel Laureate (Chemistry), Prof. Emer., Univ. of California–Los Angeles
  • Steven Weinberg, PhD—Nobel Laureate (Physics); Prof. of Physics, Univ. of Texas–Austin
  • Jo Ann Boydston—former exec. dir., John Dewey Foundation
  • Cody Burleson, President & CEO, Burleson Technology Group, LLC
  • Gwen W. Brewer, PhD—Prof. Emer., California State Univ.–Northridge
  • Stephen Barrett, MD—Board Chairman, Quackwatch, Inc.
  • Arthur Caplan, PhD—Chair, Dept. of Medical Ethics, Univ. of Pennsylvania
  • Elizabeth Daerr—Exec. Dir., CfI/Washington, DC
  • Daniel C. Dennett, PhD—Prof. of Philosophy, Tufts Univ.
  • Edd Doerr—President, Americans for Religious Liberty, Silver Spring, MD
  • Ann Druyan—author, producer; President, The Carl Sagan Foundation, Ithaca, NY
  • Martin Gardner—author and editor
  • Rebecca Goldstein, PhD—author, Visiting Prof. of Philosophy, Trinity College
  • Adolf Grünbaum, PhD— Prof. and Chair, Center for Philosophy of Science, Univ. of Pittsburgh
  • Peter Hare, PhD—Distinguished Prof. Emer. of Philosophy, SUNY Buffalo
  • James A. Haught—Executive Editor, The Charleston Gazette
  • David Helfand, PhD—Prof. of Astronomy, Columbia Univ.
  • Gerald Holton, PhD—Prof. of Physics, Harvard Univ.
  • Leon Jaroff—senior science editor (retired), Time and Discover
  • Donald C. Johanson, PhD—Dir., Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State Univ.
  • Stuart D. Jordan, Ph.D.—Senior Staff Scientist (Emeritus), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Barry Karr—Exec. Dir., Center for Inquiry/Transnational, Amherst, NY
  • Daniel Kelleher—entrepreneur, Kalispell, MT
  • Tom Knapp—Vero Beach, FL
  • Virginia Knapp—Vero Beach, FL
  • David Koepsell, PhD, JD—Exec. Dir., Council for Secular Humanism
  • Lawrence Krauss, PhD—Foundation Professor and Director of the Origins Initiative at Arizona State University
  • Paul Kurtz, PhD— Prof. Emer. of Philosophy, SUNY Buffalo; Chairman, Center for Inquiry/Transnational
  • Ronald A. Lindsay, PhD, JD—Legal Dir., CfI-Office of Public Policy, Washington, DC
  • Jere H. Lipps, PhD—Prof., Museum of Paleontology, Univ. of California–Berkeley
  • Elizabeth Loftus, PhD—Dist. Prof. of Psychology and Social Behavior, Univ. of California–Irvine
  • Steve Lowe—Washington Area Secular Humanists
  • Kenneth Marsalek—founding member & past president, Washington Area Secular Humanists
  • Joe Nickell, PhD—Senior Research Fellow, CSICOP at Center for Inquiry, Amherst, NY
  • Matthew Nisbet, PhD—Asst. Prof. of Communications, American Univ.
  • Steven Pinker, PhD—author and Prof. of Psychology, Harvard Univ.
  • Elie A. Shneour, PhD—President and Research Director, Biosystems Research Inst., San Diego, Calif.
  • Peter Singer, PhD—Prof. of Philosophy, Princeton Univ.
  • Victor Stenger, PhD—Prof. Emer., Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Hawaii
  • Edward Tabash, JD—Chair, First Amendment Task Force
  • Lionel Tiger, PhD— Prof. of Anthropology, Rutgers Univ.
  • Toni Van Pelt—Policy Dir., CfI-Office of Public Policy, Washington, DC
  • Edward O. Wilson, PhD—Pellegrino University Prof. Emer., Harvard Univ.

Names added since November 29, 2006

  • Eduardo Alcแกzar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Mark & Jennifer Allen, Thetford, VT
  • Peter Altmann, Library Assistant, Maine
  • Edith Amster, MS, retired educator, New York, NY
  • Claude Angeli, Prescott, AZ
  • Ralph Armstrong, North Vancouver, BC
  • Matthew Atkins, Culpeper, VA
  • Dean W. Austin, Sparks, NV
  • Christopher Babcock, Indiana
  • Harold Bailey, MSW, Social Worker, Volunteer Ranger, Naturalist, Catonsville, MD
  • Tim Bailey, education consultant, Vice President, Humanists of Colorado, Denver, CO
  • Ken Batts, Psychotherapist, Brookline, MA
  • Steve Beatty, MBA, software developer, Huntly, VA
  • Thomas L. Bell III, BS MA ARM, Arriba, CO
  • Dr. John Bellomo DO ABFP FRNZCGP, Stratford, New Zealand
  • Kelly Bennett, accountant & ballroom dance instructor, Miami, FL
  • R. E. Bennett, Madison, WI
  • Steven Biars, geologist, Portsmouth, OH
  • Ryan Blake, San Luis Obispo, CA
  • Ray F. Boehmer, Assoc Prof of Science Education, Millikin Univ, Decatur, IL
  • Barbara R. Breitbart, PhD, Psychologist/Mediator, Sedona, AZ
  • Mark Romney Brown, BM, (Music), business owner, San Diego, CA
  • Liam Breunle, MA, Kilkenny, Ireland
  • Chad D. Brock MS, Univ. of Texas-Austin
  • Brian A. Burns, Network Communications Analyst, Mount Prospect, IL
  • Tim Burns, software instructor, Irvine, CA
  • Robert C. Camp, Ed. M., Personal Growth & Crisis Intervention Services, St. Louis Univ., Carbondale, IL
  • Chris Campbell, Mechanical Engineer, St. Louis, MO
  • Robin B. Carey, professor (emeritus) of English, Missoula, MT
  • Lisandro Carnielli, MD, Rosario, Argentina
  • M. Eric Carr, Philadelphia, PA
  • Mr. William Carter, New York, NY
  • Gretchen Caspary, PhD, Sr. Rsch. Associate, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL
  • Marcelo Chavez, MD, PhD student, Neurophysiology Lab, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • Andrew Cheadle, Wright State University, Dayton, OH
  • Scott Childers, Shepherdsville, KY
  • J. Peter Coppinger, PhD, Asst. Prof., Dept. of Applied Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
  • Daryl Costello, school psychologist, Kerhonkson, NY
  • D. Robert Coulson, PhD (retired), Research Chemist, Wilmington, DE
  • Michael R. D'Amato, Prof. Emer. of Psychology (retired), Rutgers Univ.
  • David G. DeGroote, Embedded Systems Engineer, State College, PA
  • Henry A. Deichelbohrer, retired, Monroe, MI
  • Alan DiCenzo, PhD, consultant, mathematician, space scientist, Hermosa Beach, CA
  • Stephen P. Diehl, Horsham, PA
  • John E. Dodes, DDS, president (NY Chapter), National Council Against Health Fraud
  • Trooper Michael Dolan, Medical Officer, NYS Police, Cranberry Lake, NY
  • Roger P. Donahue, PhD, Faculty Emeritus, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
  • Justin DuBois, Student and Economist, Sparta, NJ
  • Steven N. Durlauf, Dept. of Economics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
  • William Dusenberry, Associate Prof. of Sociology, New Jersey City Univ.
  • Andrew Eberspaecher, engineer, Toronto, Ontario, CA
  • Jack Ericson Eblen, PhD, International Health Epidemiologist and Demographer, (retired)
  • Trudi J. Eblen, MS, MEd, Early Childhood Dev., New York City (retired)
  • Mark Edgar, PhD, MPH, Asst. Prof. of Health Policy & Public Admin., Univ. of Illinois, Springfield, IL
  • Taner Edis, PhD, Assoc. Prof. of Physics, Truman State Univ.
  • John Eills, MBA, New York City
  • Steve Engard, PA-C, Ridgefield, WA
  • Bryan F. Erickson, Esq., Reg. patent attorney, Minneapolis, MN
  • Joseph M. Erwin, PhD, Exec. Dir., Foundation for Comparative & Conservation Biology
  • Kermit R. Escudier III, concerned citizen, Lafayette, LA
  • Nicholas Esposito, B.S. Mus student, Jericho, NY
  • Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, PhD, Pres., Environmental Research Consulting
  • Bruce Farmer, Technologist & Entrepreneur, Chicago, IL
  • Sean Farrell, San Diego, CA
  • Peter Feibleman, novelist and playwright
  • Christopher Fenton, college student, Las Vegas, NV
  • Jana Fields, web designer/developer, Buffalo, NY
  • Wayne Fields, PhD, Chief Technical Officer, ThermoGear Inc., Brookings, OR
  • Eugene Fowler, Milwaukee, WI
  • MaryAnn Furca, Redford, MI
  • Natasha Gammon, King George, VA
  • Carlos A. Garibaldi, MS, MBA, petroleum engineer, M&A Managing Director, Houston, TX
  • Kathleen Ann Goonan, author and educator
  • Stephen J Gordon, MD, FACP, Clinical Prof. of Medicine, Univ. of California Sch. of Medicine, San Diego
  • Robert Bates Graber, PhD, Prof. Emer. of Anthropology, Truman State Univ.
  • Forrest Greene, GA
  • Edward R. Greisch, electrical engineer, Moline, IL
  • Fidel Guerra, Indianapolis, IN
  • Jeffrey Hall, Lakeland, FL
  • Ryan Halloran, Fremont, OH
  • James A. Harless, Manhattan Beach, CA
  • Thomas D. Harnish, Senior Scientist (retired), Carlsbad, CA
  • John David Haro, Software Engineer, Chicago, IL
  • Bradley Hart, photographer, Kent, OH
  • Rebecca Harvey, Technical Editor, Houston, TX
  • Jack Hassard, PhD, author and Prof. Emeritus of Science Education, Georgia State Univ
  • Jon Hauxwell, MD (retired), Assoc Prof of Family Medicine, Univ of Washington Sch of Medicine, Hays, KS
  • Charles Hollingshead, Greenwood, IN
  • Kenneth Hoppe, Austin, TX
  • Jennifer Ibrahim, MD, New Jersey
  • Peter Ilott, PhD, Senior Engineer, Pasadena, CA
  • Chris Ireland, human being, Northfield, NJ
  • Earl Wesley Jernigan, PhD, director (emeritus), Eastern Arizona College Museum of Anthropology
  • James W. Jordan, MD, playwright and neurology resident, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH
  • John Justice, Prof. of Philosophy, Randolph College, Lynchburg, VA
  • Wes Kalbfleisch, citizen, Beaverton, OR
  • Dr Nancy Kalish, author, Prof. of Psychology, California State Univ.
  • Frances F. Kaplan, DA (Doctor of Arts), author, instructor, Marylhurst Univ., Marylhurst, OR
  • Anne Cady Keegan, ever curious Darwinian, Waccabuc, NY
  • Jeffrey Kidder, PhD, Director, Univ. of Colorado Science Discovery
  • Jurgen Kleist, PhD, Professor of Literature, SUNY Plattsburgh
  • Ronald J. Knoblock, MD, Las Vegas, NV
  • Kirk T. Korista, PhD, Assoc. Prof. of Astronomy, Western Michigan Univ.
  • Michelle S. Koth, MB, MM, MLS, Catalog Librarian, Irving S. Gilmore Music Lib., Yale Univ.
  • Melissa A. T. Kotulski, M.A., Falls Church, VA
  • Iliya Kozhouharov, Assoc. Prof. of Poliphony, Academy of Music, Dance, & Fine Arts, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • John Krause, architect, New York, NY
  • Dawn C. Ladd, Trinity, FL
  • Stephenie N. LaMaina, parent, Cape May, NJ
  • Tristan Lambert, PhD, asst. prof., dept. of chemistry, Columbia Univ.
  • Rev. Eugene LaMothe, Cranberry Lake, NY
  • James R. Lamott, PhD, MD
  • Dr. Ed Landing, Paleontologist, Principal Scientist-Paleontology, New York State Museum, Albany, NY
  • Robert Lane, President, Humanists of Utah
  • Didier Lamy, PhD, Strasbourg, France
  • Richard A. Laubhan, retired, Galena, IL
  • David Lee, Sumter, SC
  • Suzette Leger, New Orleans, LA
  • Lawrence S. Lerner, Prof. Emer., College of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, California State Univ., Long Beach
  • Ken Lim, Chmn. & Chief Futurist, CyberMedia Convergence Consulting
  • Timothy E. Lindsay, MD, Minneapolis, MN
  • Joshua Lipana, Executive Director, CFI/Philippines
  • Christopher Luebcke, software engineer, San Jose, CA
  • William Luka, retired, Parrish, FL
  • Seth MacFarlane, creator, executive producer, "Family Guy," 20th Century Fox
  • Ms. Helen Malvick, Glen Ellyn, IL
  • Mark Manary OD, Jefferson City, MO
  • Kenneth W. Massey, PhD, International business consultant, adj. faculty member, Univ. Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile
  • Mac Masters, Eagle Lake, FL
  • William Mates, Lawrenceville, NJ
  • Heather & Jason Mather, Greeley, CO
  • Richard Mattas, PhD, Senior Engineer (retired), Argonne National Laboratory
  • Tim Maudlin, PhD, Prof. of Philosophy, Rutgers Univ.
  • Richard Maybee, Richmond, VA
  • David J. McAdams, MD, Asst. Prof. of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Dan McArthur, PhD, Dept. of Philosophy, Akinson Faculty of Liberal and Professional Studies, York Univ.
  • Jeffrey R. McDade, PhD, Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Sociology, Graceland Univ.
  • G.W. McGregor, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • Thomas J. McManus, MD, Prof. Emer., Cell Biology, Duke Univ. Medical Ctr.
  • Miss Lucy McWilliams, Sydney, Australia
  • Paul S. Meade, MD, Lewiston, NY
  • Chaz Mena, Humanities Scholar & Professional Actor, New York, NY
  • Paula Messina, Assoc. Prof. of Geology, Dept. of Geology & Program in Science Ed., San Jose State Univ.
  • Eugenie V. Mielczarek, Prof. Emer. of Physics, George Mason University
  • Kathy Milacek, Dallas, TX
  • Kevin Mills, PhD, biologist, Goshen, OH
  • Keith J. Minor, undergraduate student (physics), Univ. of South Carolina
  • Joseph Minutillo, Queens, NY
  • Gary Missner, Chicago, IL
  • Corey Mondello, student, Boston, MA
  • Leslie A. Month, PhD, Prof. of Mathematics, Diablo Valley College
  • Allison Marie Moore, student, Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL
  • Wade Morehead, Project Manager & Architectural Designer, Shreveport, LA
  • Derek Morr, State College, PA
  • Chris Morton, PhD, Boynton Beach, FL
  • Willard Mudget, retired science teacher, Traverse City, MI
  • Viktor Nagornyy, photographer/writer, Rochester, NY
  • Joy Nichols, Chapel Hill, NC
  • Peter Nightingale, PhD, physicist, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Rhode Island
  • Don Nyberg, Prof. of Analytical Chemistry, SUNY-Corning Comm. College, Corning, NY
  • Rabbi Michael Oblath, Congregation Beth Sholom, Anchorage, AK
  • Maureen O'Connell, Malibu, CA
  • Russ Painter, PA
  • Kirby Palm, P.E. (retired), Havana, FL
  • Greg Paxson, Simi Valley, CA
  • Ken Pelletier, Chicago, IL
  • Randy Pelton, science teacher, Akron, OH
  • Mark Perakh, author, Prof. Emer. of Physics, California State Univ., Fullerton
  • Sergio J. Perez Leyva, Queretaro, Mexico
  • Robert Perloff, Dist. Service Prof. Emer., Business Admin and Psychology, Joseph M. Katz School of Business, Univ. of Pittsburgh
  • Bryan J. Pesta, PhD, Asst. Prof., Dept. of Management, Cleveland State Univ.
  • John Pinezaddleby, Substance Abuse Counseling Specialist, Anadarko, OK
  • S. Kent Plenge, Louisville, KY
  • Albert L. Porterfield, PhD, Assoc. Prof. of Psychology, Oberlin College, Ohio
  • Timothy Post, PsyD, Kansas City, MO
  • Cheryl Potance, Non-Traditional Student, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Dan Preston, Memphis, TN
  • Fabricio Quinones, Frederick, MD
  • Peter J. Quirk, Plant Manager, Lockport Cogeneration Facility
  • MD. Mas-U-Dur Rahman, student, Kliuc, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Akshay R. Rao, Dir., Inst. for Rsch in Marketing, Carlson School of Management, Univ. of Minnesota
  • Christopher J. Reaume, MSc, PhD candidate, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Toronto
  • Michael Rectenwald, PhD, Chair, Science, Technology and Society, Global Liberal Studies Program, New York University
  • Robert Rectenwald, instructional designer, MI
  • Rodrigo Riadi, MBA, MSc -- Mechanical Engineering, McLean, VA
  • Mike S. Rice, Boise, ID
  • James F. Richardson, Fountain Hills, AZ
  • Rebecca Riley, Attorney at Law, Northridge, CA
  • Joyce Rinehart, Florida
  • James F. Rodgers, DSH, LCDR U.S. Navy (retired), Boulder, CO
  • Irwin A Rose, PhD, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2004), Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, Univ. of California, Irvine
  • Aaron Rosenberg, composer & doctoral student of music, Univ. of Oregon
  • Andrew L. Ross, PhD, Dir., Office for Policy, Security, and Technology; Prof., Dept. of Political Science, Univ. of New Mexico
  • David Rosman, Columbia, MO
  • Eric Salzman, composer & book review editor, Brooklyn, NY
  • Lorna Salzman, environmental writer & activist, Brooklyn, NY
  • Cynthia V. Satchell, MD, Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst, Denver, CO
  • Vladimir Savinov, Assoc. Prof. of Physics, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh
  • Al Scharf, retired from Federal Service, San Antonio, TX
  • Patsy Verena Schreer, MA, arts in education, Guidance and Counseling field (retired), Port Charlotte, FL
  • Matthew Schultz, VP of Technology, Dutchess County, NY
  • Brahm H. Segal, MD, FACP, FIDSA, Assoc. Prof. of Medicine, SUNY at Buffalo; Chief, Div. of Infectious Diseases, Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY
  • Argelia Tejada Segor, PhD, International Evaluation Consultant, ATS Consulting, Miami, FL
  • Jerry L. Shapiro, PhD, nuclear engineer (retired)
  • Dr. Laura Silverstein, CA
  • John Simmons, Industrial Engineer, Mattesion, IL
  • Sven Sinclair, PhD, Burke, VA
  • Mano Singham, PhD, Physicist & Director, Univ. Ctr. for Innovation in Teaching and Education (UCITE), Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH
  • Dan I. Slobin, Prof. Emer. of Psychology & Linguistics, Univ. of California, Berkeley
  • Candace Slobodnik, Social Studies Teacher, Prince Georges Public Schools, Maryland
  • Gregory Smith, PhD, Graduate Faculty in Biology, Univ. of Akron
  • Frederick Spackman, Philadelphia, PA
  • Gene C. Sproul, lawyer (retired), Orangevale, CA
  • Rolf Sternglanz, Dist. Prof., Dept. of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook Univ.
  • Weylin Sternglanz, PhD, Asst. Prof. of Psychology, Farquhar College of Arts, Nova Southeastern Univ.
  • Bri L. Stretton, student, College of the Redwoods, Eureka, CA
  • Jamie Strong, Wwner, TheFinalProduct.com, Austin, TX
  • Richard K. Stucky, PhD, Curator of Paleoecology & Evolution, Denver Museum of Nature & Science
  • Lionel Surmont, Brussels, Belgium
  • Stu Sutherland, engineer, New York, NY
  • Scott Suurmeyer, Conway, AR
  • David L. Tait, Tallahassee, FL
  • Erik Taylor, PhD, Research Scientist, Ithaca, NY
  • Paige Thomas, Boise, ID
  • Raoul Tommasi, Crudeli Environment R & D Eng, Italy
  • Michael Tooley, Prof. of Philosophy, University of Colorado
  • John D. Trawick, PhD, scientist & molecular geneticist, Adj. Asst. Prof., Dept. of Biology, San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA
  • Steve Turner, BA, Psychology, Univ. of South Florida
  • Beth VanMiddlesworth, St. Petersburg, FL
  • Paul Wagner, Systems Engineer, Franklin, OH
  • Peter R. Walker, bank marketing executive (retired), Bellingham, WA
  • Colin Wells, author and independent scholar, Westport, NY
  • Robert Wentz, PhD, philosopher, social scientist, Salzburg, Austria
  • David A. Whitsett, PhD, Prof. Emer. of Psychology, Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA
  • Diana Wilson, PhD, researcher and Social Worker, Miami-Dade County Public Schools
  • Michael Wiltberger, PhD, NCAR
  • Linda Wright, P.T., PhD, Prof., College of Health Professions, Armstrong Atlantic State Univ., Savannah, GA
  • Anna Vainchtein, PhD, Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics, Univ. of Pittsburgh
  • Massimo Vittorio, PhD, Prof. of Social Ethics, Univ. of Catania, Italy
  • Jason Voegele, Software Engineer, Fort Thomas, KY
  • Steve Voorhees, Dillsburg, PA
  • Nikola Vukelic, MD, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Michael Yanowitch, Prof. Emer. Mathematics, Adelphi Univ.
  • Ivica Zdravkovic, MD, GP specialist, Serbia

*Institutions for identification only