Rainforest plant - Potential cure for ALS
Posted: 10 September 2014 02:59 AM   [ Ignore ]
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Ayahuasca – Ethnobotanical medicine for potential treatment of ALS

From: http://ayahuascatreatment.wordpress.com/2014/09/01/ayahuasca-ethnobotanical-medicine-for-treatment-of-als/

This article is the culmination of six years work, having studied ethnobotanical natural medicine and the field of neurodisease, making connections between the two in the search for something viable in terms of an alternative treatment option for ALS – amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and similar neurodegenerative conditions.

In south and central america, the native people within many tribes living in the Amazon rainforest have a long historical tradition of making and consuming a natural medicinal tea called ayahuasca. It is harvested and prepared mainly from a wild growing vine, it’s latin name being Banisteriopsis Caapi. Often, but not always, leaves from trees named Chacruna or Chaliponga (Psychotria Viridis and Diplopterys Cabrerana) are added to the tea, or in some regions Jurema tree bark (of the Leguminosae family and Mimosa species).

caapi.jpg?w=250&h=303

The rainforests of the earth are known to be an enormous resource and a necessity for upholding the ecosystem of the planet. It is estimated that a very great number of undiscovered plants of medicinal value, are yet to be explored within these forests. Many conventional pharmaceutical medicines originate from substances found in rainforest plants, or their synthesized variants. Ethnopharmacologists have long been aware that there is vast support for the medicinal value of ayahuasca in its use against a number of diseases, but until recently this has been limited to individual claims. Even if a great number of very in-depth and credible personal stories have been available, serious studies have previously been missing.

This, however, has come to change in the last decade. Natural substances extracted from the ayahuasca plants have been found to possess unique restorative and strongly antioxidative properties on specific nerve cells in the brain and central nervous system – controlling neurotransmission, muscle/motor activity, memory and coordination. This gives probable cause to the theory that ayahuasca could be an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease. Promising results as of date have also been obtained from studying the substance psilocybin, remarkebly closely related from a molecular staindpoint to the substances found in ayahuasca, naturally occuring in certain species of medicinal mushrooms consumed by the indigenous people where ayahuasca is also used.

According to Dr. Juan Ramos, head of the neurological disease department at the South Florida university, USA, initial studies show that these tryptamine-family substances stimulate the development of new cells in the areas of the brain controlling the above mentioned functions. If this could prove to be an eventual cure through complete restoration of damaged or destroyed cells remains to be seen, but initial results indicate this could potentially be the case. Other studies led by Dr. Jordi Riba at the spanish university of Sant Pau, Barcelona, show connections between ayahuasca and neural pathway redevelopment in the neocortex. Cancer researchers have also shown interest in B. Caapi, as its alkaloids have shown to be effective against the growth of cancer cells, and are believed to be able to stabilize and balance mitochondrial function. This relates also to ALS research in that mitochondrial dysfunction is nominated one of the main causes of cell damage in ALS, and that the normalization of mitochondrial metabolism through modulation of calcium influx from beneficial alkaloids contained in ayahuasca could prevent motor neuron damage and increase survival rate of these cells. Mitochondrial function is directly related to neuronal survival, and unregulated levels of intracellular calcium are thought to initiate motor neuron dysfunction, or amplify other mechanisms prone to injure motor neurons.

Eduardo E. Schenberg, Federal University of Sao Paulo:


  “There are enough available evidence that the active substances in ayahuasca, especially dimethyltryptamine and harmine, has the positive effect of preventing cancer cells in cultures used for cancer research, and that these substances affect the biochemical processes that are crucial to the treatment of cancer in-vitro as well as in-vivo. The reports available about people with experience from ayahuasca in the treatment of cancer should be taken seriously. The hypothesis is that the combination of (beta-carboline) alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine present in ayahuasca blocks the transportation of nutrients to tumours, lessens the dividing process of cancer cells, and changes the unbalanced mutation-causing metabolism in cancer cells.”

ayacan.jpg?w=404&h=311

A recent study by Icahn School of Medicine, New York, singled out harmine (from the ayahuasca Caapi plant) among 100.000 substances, as the only one able to cause beta cells in the pancreas (the internal organ that produces insulin) to regenerate, a discovery of great interest to diabetes researchers. Other evidence suggest that ayahuasca may have the potential to regenerate several different types of cells, in many places in the body where needed, the specifics of which calls for medical research in many areas – especially neurodegenerative diseases without a known cure. There is also a growing interest in exploring the cell regenerative properties of these plants within spinal chord injury research. Harmine in ayahuasca has also been found to regulate glutamate pump expression in the central nervous system, thereby reducing glutamate toxicity – one of the causes believed to trigger and aggravate ALS through excitotoxic reactions occuring through excessive receptor stimulation by neurotransmitters.

Along with several other similar harmala-alkaloids that can be found in B. Caapi, harmaline is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme in the body that breaks down signal substances (such as serotonin). The inhibition of MAO allows the signal substance to remain in the synapse for a longer period of time. Many anti-depressants work in a similar way, as they stimulate receptors in a targeted area. However, the alkaloids present in ayahuasca should not be compared to antidepressants, as they are not the same though they both have the ability to affect the same receptors. A comparison is that Caapi alkaloids and antidepressants have the same type of delivery system, but different contents. The biochemical properties of plants used in ayahuasca, and the effects they cause on a multitude of bodily functions remain unique to these plants alone. Various types of harmala alkaloids exert suppression of neurotoxic metabolites, such as quinolinic acid and kynurenine – metabolites correlating with ALS, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, all in which elevated levels of given metabolites are found and thought to contribute to onset of disease through interaction with spinal motor neurons.

harmaline_3d_mid.jpg?w=300&h=192

Ayahuasca in itself is proven to be unharmful, as its compounds are non-toxic, though temporary side effects such as nausea and vertigo are common. However, combining certain medical drugs with MAO-inhibitors (such as the ones found in ayahuasca) can be dangerous, even lethal in some cases. This means that in order to safely consume ayahuasca, one must not combine it with any contraindicated medicinal drugs, and those suffering from certain health conditions such as epilepsy or high blood pressure are adviced to refrain from this treatment. The more or less uncomfortable side effects from ayahuasca, are greatly dose-dependent, and a smaller amount consumed for medicinal purpose can thus mean few, if any, side effects experienced.

The substance known as dimethyltryptamine, found in plants traditionally added to ayahuasca, is regulated by law in a number of countries classified as a scheduled substance. (Questionably so, due to its medicinal value in multiple areas). It is these secondary added plants and this particular substance that induces an altered state of consciousness, a many times misunderstood and stigmatized phenomenon. A description of this altered state is that it is dreamlike, that it stimulates memory and the ability to think abstract, and that it has self-therapeutic qualities. Even though dimethyltryptamine is naturally occuring in the human body, thought to be produced in small amounts by the pineal gland in the brain during the dream phases of sleep, it remains an illegal substance in a number of western countries since the 1960’s and 70’s, when lawmakers prematurely criminalized many substances suspected of having any effect on the mind, including natural ones, due to the widespread moral panic at the time – regardless of the fact that many of them, including dimethyltryptamine, has never been proven unhealthy in any way, and has in fact been used by indigenous people, in the form extracted from plants, to successfully treat disease for centuries. Leaf juice from Chacruna has been used traditionally as a remedy for migraines and ant bites, and Jurema bark for treating burn wounds – significantly quickening regeneration of skin and scar tissue. Dimethyltryptamine also targets chaperone sigma 1, a receptor subtype expressed in both neurons and glia of multiple regions within the central nervous system, with capacity to modulate biological mechanisms implicated with neurodegeneration. Sigma 1-receptors present compelling targets for pharmacologically treating neurodegenerative disorders, and dimethyltryptamine acts as an endogenous Sigma-1 receptor regulator, but interactions between the two in association with motor neuron disease is not understood.

caapi_examine.png?w=463&h=213

Ayahuasca is proven to be non-addictive, and is even used to aid people in breaking their drug dependencies, as ayahuasca has a detoxifying and documented effect of ridding the user of drugrelated abstinence issues.


Summary of Key Points:

Ayahuasca could effectively be used in treatment of ALS and other motor neuron diseases based on the fact that studies suggest uniquely antioxidative effects that seem to protect brain/nerve cells, targeting motor neurons through a unique biochemical transport system, and that it and other moleculary similar substances, also naturally occuring, stimulate neurogenesis – the development of new brain/nerve cells, and the communicative capacity between these. In studies it has been found to reduce symptoms in Parkinsons’s patients – all neurodegenerative diseases share common ground, thus making it likely that something that improves a given neurological condition could also be beneficial to other conditions nearly related. Also based on credible personal accounts from people having used ayahuasca for symptom relief from their multiple sclerosis (once again – the common ground of neurodegenerative diseases), documented in books about ayahuasca, and from descriptions of early stage minor improvement by those with various types of ALS now participating in the treatment project, already having used this medicine for a period of time. Studies also indicate ability to normalize metabolism in mitochondria, crucial to motor neuron survival, and to regulate and decrease levels of excitotoxicity in the central nervous system.


References/Studies

[ Edited: 11 August 2016 11:23 PM by hellspawn1 ]
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Posted: 10 September 2014 06:55 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 1 ]
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Thanks for the link. Your conclusions however are premature. I did not have time to read all the citations at the end of your article but in a quick review of them I did not find any significant clinical studies to support the conclusions you have made. There are chemical analyses of the substances in question and discussion of a non-blinded controlled study but no good double blinded clinical studies and therefor no independent verification of such studies either.

The best that can be said of this substance is that it may be worthy of future investigation but it has absolutely no clinical application at this stage.

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Posted: 10 September 2014 11:32 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 2 ]
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macgyver - 10 September 2014 06:55 AM

Thanks for the link. Your conclusions however are premature. I did not have time to read all the citations at the end of your article but in a quick review of them I did not find any significant clinical studies to support the conclusions you have made. There are chemical analyses of the substances in question and discussion of a non-blinded controlled study but no good double blinded clinical studies and therefor no independent verification of such studies either.

The best that can be said of this substance is that it may be worthy of future investigation but it has absolutely no clinical application at this stage.

It looks promising, though. I’d like to hear more about the upcoming. research.

Lois

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Posted: 10 September 2014 12:02 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 3 ]
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LoisL - 10 September 2014 11:32 AM

It looks promising, though. I’d like to hear more about the upcoming. research.

Lois

Well there are two ways this can go. Either some legitimate scientists will pursue this and through rigorous trials determine whether or not its a safe and useful drug, or some unethical entrepreneur will package it as an herbal supplement for all that ails you neurologically possibly earning them millions but leaving us in the dark as to whether it is any good for anything.

The government continues to cut funds for medical research all while the unregulated supplement industry makes tens of billions on unproven products. Shall we place a bet on the more likely outcome for this possibly promising drug?

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Posted: 10 September 2014 03:30 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 4 ]
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macgyver - 10 September 2014 12:02 PM
LoisL - 10 September 2014 11:32 AM

It looks promising, though. I’d like to hear more about the upcoming. research.

Lois

Well there are two ways this can go. Either some legitimate scientists will pursue this and through rigorous trials determine whether or not its a safe and useful drug, or some unethical entrepreneur will package it as an herbal supplement for all that ails you neurologically possibly earning them millions but leaving us in the dark as to whether it is any good for anything.

The government continues to cut funds for medical research all while the unregulated supplement industry makes tens of billions on unproven products. Shall we place a bet on the more likely outcome for this possibly promising drug?

No, it’s too early in the game to place bets, though I do agree that some entrepreneur will package it as an herbal supplement before proper testing takes place.

Lois

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Posted: 10 September 2014 10:59 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 5 ]
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macgyver - 10 September 2014 06:55 AM

Thanks for the link. Your conclusions however are premature. I did not have time to read all the citations at the end of your article but in a quick review of them I did not find any significant clinical studies to support the conclusions you have made. There are chemical analyses of the substances in question and discussion of a non-blinded controlled study but no good double blinded clinical studies and therefor no independent verification of such studies either.

The best that can be said of this substance is that it may be worthy of future investigation but it has absolutely no clinical application at this stage.


Agreed. It is emphasized in the article that this is still on a theoretical level, and that premature conclusions cannot and should not be made. However, without the incentive for research being made, the types of studies you mention will simply not take place. There is an abundance of people using these plants already, claiming different medicinal health benefits, symptom relief from multiple sclerosis among others, supposedly. I will try to track some of these people, to interview and document any relevant cases, should they be willing to be subjected. If what I gather turns out to be anything substantial, that could spark the interest of the scientific community, I will then move forward and try to present it to neurodisease researchers in Sweden and/or elsewhere.

macgyver - 10 September 2014 12:02 PM
LoisL - 10 September 2014 11:32 AM

It looks promising, though. I’d like to hear more about the upcoming. research.

Lois

Well there are two ways this can go. Either some legitimate scientists will pursue this and through rigorous trials determine whether or not its a safe and useful drug, or some unethical entrepreneur will package it as an herbal supplement for all that ails you neurologically possibly earning them millions but leaving us in the dark as to whether it is any good for anything.

The government continues to cut funds for medical research all while the unregulated supplement industry makes tens of billions on unproven products. Shall we place a bet on the more likely outcome for this possibly promising drug?

I’m pretty certain the vast majority of people using these plants aren’t being ailed, as at least one study referred to in the article seemed to prove long-term mental health benefits without any long-term side effects to mind or body. Many people are unaware of that there is quite a large (and growing) community of people supporting and promoting these medicinal plants and their cultural heritage, on a non-profit basis.

[ Edited: 11 September 2014 03:42 AM by hellspawn1 ]
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Posted: 11 September 2014 08:48 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 6 ]
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hellspawn1 - 10 September 2014 10:59 PM
macgyver - 10 September 2014 06:55 AM

Thanks for the link. Your conclusions however are premature. I did not have time to read all the citations at the end of your article but in a quick review of them I did not find any significant clinical studies to support the conclusions you have made. There are chemical analyses of the substances in question and discussion of a non-blinded controlled study but no good double blinded clinical studies and therefor no independent verification of such studies either.

The best that can be said of this substance is that it may be worthy of future investigation but it has absolutely no clinical application at this stage.


Agreed. It is emphasized in the article that this is still on a theoretical level, and that premature conclusions cannot and should not be made. However, without the incentive for research being made, the types of studies you mention will simply not take place. There is an abundance of people using these plants already, claiming different medicinal health benefits, symptom relief from multiple sclerosis among others, supposedly. I will try to track some of these people, to interview and document any relevant cases, should they be willing to be subjected. If what I gather turns out to be anything substantial, that could spark the interest of the scientific community, I will then move forward and try to present it to neurodisease researchers in Sweden and/or elsewhere.

macgyver - 10 September 2014 12:02 PM
LoisL - 10 September 2014 11:32 AM

It looks promising, though. I’d like to hear more about the upcoming. research.

Lois

Well there are two ways this can go. Either some legitimate scientists will pursue this and through rigorous trials determine whether or not its a safe and useful drug, or some unethical entrepreneur will package it as an herbal supplement for all that ails you neurologically possibly earning them millions but leaving us in the dark as to whether it is any good for anything.

The government continues to cut funds for medical research all while the unregulated supplement industry makes tens of billions on unproven products. Shall we place a bet on the more likely outcome for this possibly promising drug?

I’m pretty certain the vast majority of people using these plants aren’t being ailed, as at least one study referred to in the article seemed to prove long-term mental health benefits without any long-term side effects to mind or body. Many people are unaware of that there is quite a large (and growing) community of people supporting and promoting these medicinal plants and their cultural heritage, on a non-profit basis.

We in the US, at least, are well aware that there is a community of people promoting herbal remedies—without a scintilla of evidence that they are effective or even safe. “Cultural heritage” has no place in evidence-based research, nor does a group of people “supporting and promoting” even if profit is not a motivating factor. You can be sure that a profiteer will pop up sooner or later.

Lois

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Posted: 11 September 2014 10:30 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 7 ]
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You know what would be really weird? Seeing a post in a blog somewhere that said “I’m working on a Phase I clinical trial of a possible new drug that I believe cures cancer. It was discovered in a large library of compounds that were screened against isolated biological targets where it was found to modulate a particular biomolecular pathway related to cancer, somehow or something. If it fails in this trial, I’m going to ignore that evidence and write posts about it on my Facebook page. Then I’ll try to get on talk radio where mostly I’ll rail against the machine. That should be more fun than working in this silly lab.”

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Posted: 11 September 2014 10:37 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 8 ]
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hellspawn1 - 10 September 2014 10:59 PM


Agreed. It is emphasized in the article that this is still on a theoretical level, and that premature conclusions cannot and should not be made. However, without the incentive for research being made, the types of studies you mention will simply not take place. There is an abundance of people using these plants already, claiming different medicinal health benefits, symptom relief from multiple sclerosis among others, supposedly. I will try to track some of these people, to interview and document any relevant cases, should they be willing to be subjected. If what I gather turns out to be anything substantial, that could spark the interest of the scientific community, I will then move forward and try to present it to neurodisease researchers in Sweden and/or elsewhere.


I’m pretty certain the vast majority of people using these plants aren’t being ailed, as at least one study referred to in the article seemed to prove long-term mental health benefits without any long-term side effects to mind or body. Many people are unaware of that there is quite a large (and growing) community of people supporting and promoting these medicinal plants and their cultural heritage, on a non-profit basis.

As Lois said it matters little if there is an abundance of people using these things. There are lots of people using lots of things that don’t work while believing that they do. Anecdotal evidence has no place in evidence based medicine.

Its also wrong to assume that because no harm has been documented that no harm has occurred. Medicinal plants are every bit as likely to have side effects as any other drug and if no side effects are being reported it is likely due to one of only two possible reasons. Either the plant has no effects at all good or bad, or alternatively the plant has positive effects and people are either ignoring or unaware of the negative side effects. The third option ie. that these drugs can offer hope of benefit without side effects is an example of magical thinking which has no place in a rational discussion.

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Posted: 12 September 2014 11:40 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 9 ]
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hellspawn1 - 10 September 2014 02:59 AM

I recently published my article on newly researched natural medicinal plants and their potential for treatment of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. It can be found at:

http://ayahuascatreatment.wordpress.com/2014/09/01/ayahuasca-ethnobotanical-medicine-for-treatment-of-als/

It is the culmination of several years work, having studied ethnobotanical medicine in the search for something viable. Hopefully, you will find it an important topic. It is currently being discussed on several online boards related to ALS/Alzheimer’s/Parkinson’s disease.

I wish you well, and that you share this information, should you find it interesting.

Regards,
Daniel Gustafsson, Sweden.

Anything can be refered to as a “potential cure” but I will wait until I see solid scientific results before I use the word cour, potential or otherwiase.

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Posted: 12 September 2014 06:02 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 10 ]
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without the incentive for research being made, the types of studies you mention will simply not take place.

This is a cop out. For one thing, if the research isn’t done, then we don’t know if the product is safe and effective, so it’s no good just saying, “Well, we can’t do the research so let’s just trust the anecdotes.” More importantly, herbal remedies are a $30 billion/year business in the U.S. alone. Companies are making tremendous profits selling unproven healthcare products because the law allows them to. The herbal remedy industry spends a far lower proportion of revenue on research than the much maligned pharmaceutical industry because they are not properly regulated. The money and incentives ARE there to study these things appropriately, but the political will is lacking to require this industry to put its money where its mouth is.

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Posted: 13 September 2014 01:20 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 11 ]
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Mckenzie is right these companies are becoming as big as the “big pharma” ( many of which are actually very small) that herbal remedy proponents rail against.

Others claim that research can not be done because the products and research investment cant be protected with a patent yet GlaxoSmithKlein had no problem researching and marketing a pharmaceutical grade 0mega 3 product marketed under the name Lovaza, so this excuse is clearly without merit.

The plain fact is that supplement manufacturers dont have to do research so the don’t. If your only real interest is profits why would you spend millions on research if the government will let you market your product with doing them? The laws need to be changed so that there is no artificial alternative class of therapeutics which are free from the obligation do safety and efficacy studies.

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Posted: 11 August 2016 11:30 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 12 ]
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New science as of June 16th 2016:

From Beckley Foundation website:
http://beckleyfoundation.org/2016/06/16/ayahuasca-stimulates-the-birth-of-new-brain-cells-latest-findings-from-the-beckleysant-pau-research-programme/

Scientists find that Ayahuasca stimulates the birth of new brain cells – latest findings from the Sant Pau Research Programme

Our collaborator Dr Jordi Riba presented these ground-breaking results at the Interdisciplinary Conference on Psychedelics Research last week in Amsterdam. The results are, as yet, unpublished but you can have a sneak peak at the slides from Jordi Riba’s presentation here.

The study was conducted within the framework of the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme and in collaboration with the Spanish National Research Council. In the study participated the following researchers from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC): Jose Morales-García, María Isabel Rodriguez-Franco, Ana Pérez-Castillo and Mario de la Fuente Revenga. They found that harmine and tetrahydroharmine, the alkaloids present in highest amounts in ayahuasca, stimulate the growth and maturation of neurons and promote their birth from the stem cells.

For a long time, a dogma has persisted that no new neurons are born in the brains of adults. Since the late 1990’s, this dated paradigm has been challenged by experimental evidence. The birth of new neurons, known as neurogenesis, occurs in two brain areas: around the ventricles and in a region of the hippocampus. The hippocampus plays a key role in important cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. Its function declines with the normal aging process, but does so much more dramatically in the presence of certain devastating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.

This is the first study ever conducted that demonstrates that components of the Ayahuasca brew have potent neurogenic properties. Although the results are preliminary, they show that the addition of harmine and tetrahydroharmine to cell cultures containing neural stem cells dramatically increased their differentiation, and their maturation into neurons.

We are currently conducting additional experiments to discern the magnitude of the observed effects, as well as undertaking studies on live animals.

The replication of the present findings in vivo would open a totally new avenue of research for ayahuasca and its active principles. Potential applications would range from treating neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, to redressing brain damage associated with stroke or trauma.

By Amanda Feilding
Director of the Beckley Foundation and Co-director with Jordi Riba, of the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme
16th June 2016

Jordi Riba explains the latest findings, illustrating them with the beautiful images below:


What you are seeing is a “static picture” taken after several days of treatment of the stem cells with the different compounds. No neurons were present prior to the three different tretments: a) saline (water+salt); b) harmine; and c) tetrahydroharmine

Slide2.jpg

The first image is the control, when only salty water (saline) added to the cell cultures. The nuclei of the stem cells can be seen in blue.These stem cells have been treated with saline for several days and only a few have developed into young neurons (the few green sports in the image).

Slide3.jpg

The second image shows the results after several days of treatment with harmine: blue is still present because it’s a marker of cell nuclei, and all cells have nuclei (stem cells and neurons). The green spots are the young neurons marked using Tuj1 staining (this staining is specific for “neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin) present in recently created neurons. The red spots show more mature neurons. The staining marks the “microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Its presence increases during neuron development.

Slide4.jpg

The third image shows the results obtained after several days of treatment with tetrahydroharmine. The meaning of the colors is the same.

Jordi Riba
Head of the Human Neuropsychopharmacology Research Group at Sant Pau Hospital in Barcelona and a co-director with Amanda Feilding, of the Beckley/Sant Pau Research Programme
June 2016

Ayahuasca ALS Treatment Pilot Study:

http://ayahuascatreatment.wordpress.com/2014/09/01/ayahuasca-ethnobotanical-medicine-for-treatment-of-als/

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Posted: 12 August 2016 08:47 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 13 ]
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So, two years after announcing this to be a dramatic breakthrough that might cure ALS and cancers, the most compelling evidence available is an in vitro study showing some effects on differentiation of nerve cells. This is necessary preliminary research, but at this rate we are decades away from a clinical treatment that will actually help patients even if it turns out we can develop one from this compound, which itself isn’t known yet. That is why it is so important not to spread unjustified hype about new therapies and convince desperate people that these treatments offer hope when the evidence isn’t there yet.

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Posted: 18 September 2016 10:07 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 14 ]
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macgyver - 10 September 2014 12:02 PM

Well there are two ways this can go. Either some legitimate scientists will pursue this and through rigorous trials determine whether or not its a safe and useful drug, or some unethical entrepreneur… Shall we place a bet on the more likely outcome for this possibly promising drug?

A third way, and there are other possible ways this can go, is a good scientist will be funded for the tests and prove it works. If promising and approved after stage 3 tests with NIH in the US, after years of effort, the researcher and team will be required by the bio-tech investors to sell the technology to a large company in order to get ROI so these same investors can fund other bio techs.

The large company will buy to continue dominance in the ALS or other market. The large company will then either promote or not based on the competition in the marketplace and the company’s ROI.

[ Edited: 18 September 2016 10:10 AM by JSmith ]
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Posted: 18 September 2016 12:49 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 15 ]
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It’s good to hear from Macgyver and McKenzie again.

Lois

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