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What’s with the scientific fixation on the Carbon Theory?
Posted: 19 July 2017 09:54 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 76 ]
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Write4U - 19 July 2017 03:39 PM

@ CCv3,

  smile  just say’n

Sorry, just got caught up in the moment.

Fair enough, it’s not like I haven’t been known to go far afield in some comments.  Still I didn’t want this getting way off topic.

After all, this is the number one (among too many) failure of climate science communicators and I’m a tad livid that folks who know better still don’t get it.
As for the climate science communication community - why isn’t this reality repeated front and center, over and over and over
before going on to secondary complexities that mean nothing until this is fastened in your brain first and foremost.

Write4U, as for the carbon sequestration interesting question.  Did some surfing, but no time to put it together now, but I will.
Then post under a different title   cheese

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Posted: 19 July 2017 09:54 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 77 ]
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Citizenschallenge-v.3 - 06 July 2017 06:38 PM

March 1947 -  The Air Material Command established an Atmospheric Laboratory in the Engineering Division of Watson Laboratories in Red Bank, New Jersey.

June 5, 1947 -  First Army Air Forces research balloon launched.

February 1948 -  The Atmospheric Laboratory at Watson Lab was redesigned Lab Geophysical Research Division - new mission plan was written up.

May 26, 1950 -  First successful experiment launched by AFCRL on an Aerobee rocket took measurements of the solar constant.

April 6, 1951 -  The Upper Air Research Observatory was established, located at Sacramento Peak, New Mexico.

April 6, 1951 -  Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) became operational

August 1, 1951 -  ARDC takes jurisdiction of Hanscom Field - Cambridge Research Center becomes landlord of Hanscom Field.

Christian Science Monitor “Probing Earth’s Secrets”-  June 28, 1951
7 article feature on the work of the Geophysics Research Division

September 1957 -  The Photochemistry Laboratory created artificial airglow through the use of sodium released at 88,000’

Thermal Radiation Laboratory and the Photochemistry Laboratory

May 27, 1959 -  The original seven-inch sphere was launched on a rocket to measure atmospheric density.

July 1960 -  Project Firefly got underway, using chemical releases to explore upper atmosphere properties.

November 1960   -  AFCRL (Air Force Cambridge Research Lab.) initiated a program of laser research using a ruby laser oscillator.

February 23, 1961 -  ARCRL made the first direct measurements of atmospheric density between 70 and 130 miles altitude.

November 1961 -  Four-year research effort to demonstrate the feasibility of long-range, air-ground VHF ionospheric scatter communications was completed.

March 1962 -  The Arcas-Robin rocketsonde system for high-altitude meteorological soundings went into operations.

Spring-Summer 1962 - Project Fish Bowl “high altitude nuclear test observations… Aircraft support consisted of four KC-135’s, three for studying thermal and optical emissions, and one for measuring atmospheric and ionospheric effects.
Marked first time that a Michelson interferometer was operated successfully on a aircraft.

December 1962 -  A C-130 aircraft was specifically instrumented by the University of California’s Visibility Laboratory for AFCRL program in atmospheric visibility.

The Storm Radar Data Processor tested successfully for use in displaying wind intensities within tornadoes at various altitude.

January 1963 -  AFCRL started an Ozone Network to measure vertical ozone distribution over North America.

AFCRL placed in operation a shock tube for measuring the absolute spectral line Intensities of elements forming the sun and stars.

October 31 1963 -  The final launch of Project Firefly took place from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.  In this extensive series of rocket flights begun in the summer of 1960, chemical releases were utilized to study various properties of the atmosphere.  Dense electron clouds formed by chemical releases created an artificial ionosphere for the transmission of VHF radio signals. Chemical trails also served as tracers for measuring winds, temperatures, and densities.

An AFCRL rocket-borne quadrupole mass spectrometer made the first measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the D-region, which open the way to a new understanding of this layer of the atmosphere.

December 1963 -  Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) camera system went into operation on TIROS VIII satellite.  By automatically rectifying and digitizing satellite cloud pictures, the system greatly speeded up their processing.

A C-130 aircraft instrumented for cloud physics research.

January 1964 -  AFCRL placed its newly developed laser spectrograph in operation.

Summer 1964 -  Warm cloud and fog studies (project Cat Feet) started at Otis Air Force Base.

January 1965 -  AFCRL successfully aimed pulsed laser beam to a reflective satellite (LARGO, S-66) and then captured the beam’s reflection on a photographic plate, marking the debut of satellite laser geodesy.

January 1965 -  Series of ballon flights began which measured moisture concentrations in the stratosphere.

Summer 1965 -  A new 6.6 meter ultraviolet vacuum spectrograph was installed at AFCRL for studies of the molecular structure of atmospheric gases.

November 1965 -  ARCRL assumed responsibility for the operation of NASA’s Wallops Island facility.  The radars were used for observations of atmospheric conditions associated with clear air turbulence.

March 30 , 1965 -  The OVI-5 satellite launched on this date measured radiation across the spectrum from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 -30 microns).

Winter 1966 -  AFCRL’s U-2 aircraft used for high-altitude meteorological observations since the late 1950’s was withdrawn for another mission.

May, 1967 -  The reinstrumentation of on of AFCRL’s KC-135’s as a fully-equipped flying infrared laboratory was completed

July 27, 1967 -  The Air Force satellite OVI-86 was launched.  It carried an AFCRL interferometer with a thermoelectrically cooled detector to permit more sensitive infrared measurements.

March, 1968 -  reorganization - Upper Atmosphere Physics Laboratory is renamed the Aeronomy Laboratory

August 1968 -  Rocket-borne experiments were launched from Brazil to measure the latitude variation in meteor flux.  The program used new techniques to overcome background contamination.

November 1968 -  A compilation of a complete set of atmospheric absorption line parameters was begun at AFCRL.

1969 -  First applications of the Fourier Fast Transform Techniques to Michelson interferometric spectroscopy, reducing computer time by two orders of magnitude.

Summer 1970 -  AFCRL closed its Haven Acres site for measurements of small-scale meteorological phenomena - new site opened at Donaldson, Minnesota, in 1971.

October 1970 -  A new balloon-borne gas laser measured the size distribution of aerosols at high altitude.

January 31, 1971 -  AFCRL’s Optical/Infrared Flying Laboratory made radiometric and spectral measurements of the plume of the Apollo 14 rocket booster during launch (repeated with Apollo 15)

December, 1971 -  A chemical decoy system to protect aircraft from heat-seeking missiles was flight-tested.

An initial version of the optical/infrared (OPTIR) computer code was developed.  It was designed to estimate the effects of nuclear detonations on optical/infrared detections systems.

1971 -  The report, “Earth Sciences Applied to Military Use of Terrain” was published… among topics discussed: Multi-spectral photography and thermal infrared imaging procedures.

October 16, 1972 -  The Satellite Meteorology Branch received the first pictures from the NOAA-2 satellite.  The combination of infrared and visual images transmitted permitted significant advance in satellite assessment of cloud cove.

Summer, 1973 -  Joint AFCRL/English experiments conducted to study turbulent transport of momentum and heat throughout the atmospheric boundary layer.

December, 1973 -  AFCRL developed a cloud-free, light-of-sight model to assist the development of weapons systems using optical, infrared, and laser sensors

January, 1974 -  The Optical Physics Division published a report on atmospheric transmittance for carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride laser systems.

July, 1974 -  Stratospheric Environment Project launched.  Its goal was to provide data needed by the Air Force in order to write environmental impact statements for the operations of the B-1 and F-15 aircraft.  { If nothing else it shows that all layers of the atmosphere were thoroughly studied.  This data is real, pretending there’s some profound flaws in their understanding is nothing less than a bias driven disconnect from physical reality and human abilities.}

September 1974 -  Three rocket probes from the Woomera Range in Australia extended the measurements of the infrared sky background (the HI-STAR Program) to the Southern Hemisphere.

November 1974 -  The Air Force announced Realignment and Reduction Actions.  As part of these Action, the Air Force directed that the geophysics research then being conducted at the Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) be transferred to Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

November, 1975 - The NASA Atmospheric Explorer (AE-E) satellite was launched.  It carried an AFCRL-designed spectrometer composed of 24 individual collimating grating monochrometers.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
... and the list goes on.  I’ll end this little exercise in 1975, at page 65 of 90, since the really interesting fundamental understanding happened during this earlier period - everything else has been built upon them accurately nailing down that fundamental understanding.

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Posted: 19 July 2017 10:51 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 78 ]
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DougC - 03 July 2017 09:44 PM

The current US president is also a climate change denier.

- He appointed the former head of Exxon Mobil as his secretary of state.

- His head of the EPA has sued it multiple times to prevent it from regulating the emissions of CO2.

- Openly promotes the continued burning of coal.

- Pulled America out of the Paris Accord on climate change mitigation.

Nice to know that the leader of the US is on the side of the people who want to kill us all for a few bucks.

That’s Republicans for you. Nothing is as important than the Almighty Dollar. Nothing comes close.

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[color=red“Nothing is so good as it seems beforehand.”
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Posted: 19 July 2017 10:53 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 79 ]
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Citizenschallenge-v.3 - 19 July 2017 09:54 PM
Citizenschallenge-v.3 - 06 July 2017 06:38 PM

March 1947 -  The Air Material Command established an Atmospheric Laboratory in the Engineering Division of Watson Laboratories in Red Bank, New Jersey.

June 5, 1947 -  First Army Air Forces research balloon launched.

February 1948 -  The Atmospheric Laboratory at Watson Lab was redesigned Lab Geophysical Research Division - new mission plan was written up.

May 26, 1950 -  First successful experiment launched by AFCRL on an Aerobee rocket took measurements of the solar constant.

April 6, 1951 -  The Upper Air Research Observatory was established, located at Sacramento Peak, New Mexico.

April 6, 1951 -  Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) became operational

August 1, 1951 -  ARDC takes jurisdiction of Hanscom Field - Cambridge Research Center becomes landlord of Hanscom Field.

Christian Science Monitor “Probing Earth’s Secrets”-  June 28, 1951
7 article feature on the work of the Geophysics Research Division

September 1957 -  The Photochemistry Laboratory created artificial airglow through the use of sodium released at 88,000’

Thermal Radiation Laboratory and the Photochemistry Laboratory

May 27, 1959 -  The original seven-inch sphere was launched on a rocket to measure atmospheric density.

July 1960 -  Project Firefly got underway, using chemical releases to explore upper atmosphere properties.

November 1960   -  AFCRL (Air Force Cambridge Research Lab.) initiated a program of laser research using a ruby laser oscillator.

February 23, 1961 -  ARCRL made the first direct measurements of atmospheric density between 70 and 130 miles altitude.

November 1961 -  Four-year research effort to demonstrate the feasibility of long-range, air-ground VHF ionospheric scatter communications was completed.

March 1962 -  The Arcas-Robin rocketsonde system for high-altitude meteorological soundings went into operations.

Spring-Summer 1962 - Project Fish Bowl “high altitude nuclear test observations… Aircraft support consisted of four KC-135’s, three for studying thermal and optical emissions, and one for measuring atmospheric and ionospheric effects.
Marked first time that a Michelson interferometer was operated successfully on a aircraft.

December 1962 -  A C-130 aircraft was specifically instrumented by the University of California’s Visibility Laboratory for AFCRL program in atmospheric visibility.

The Storm Radar Data Processor tested successfully for use in displaying wind intensities within tornadoes at various altitude.

January 1963 -  AFCRL started an Ozone Network to measure vertical ozone distribution over North America.

AFCRL placed in operation a shock tube for measuring the absolute spectral line Intensities of elements forming the sun and stars.

October 31 1963 -  The final launch of Project Firefly took place from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.  In this extensive series of rocket flights begun in the summer of 1960, chemical releases were utilized to study various properties of the atmosphere.  Dense electron clouds formed by chemical releases created an artificial ionosphere for the transmission of VHF radio signals. Chemical trails also served as tracers for measuring winds, temperatures, and densities.

An AFCRL rocket-borne quadrupole mass spectrometer made the first measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the D-region, which open the way to a new understanding of this layer of the atmosphere.

December 1963 -  Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) camera system went into operation on TIROS VIII satellite.  By automatically rectifying and digitizing satellite cloud pictures, the system greatly speeded up their processing.

A C-130 aircraft instrumented for cloud physics research.

January 1964 -  AFCRL placed its newly developed laser spectrograph in operation.

Summer 1964 -  Warm cloud and fog studies (project Cat Feet) started at Otis Air Force Base.

January 1965 -  AFCRL successfully aimed pulsed laser beam to a reflective satellite (LARGO, S-66) and then captured the beam’s reflection on a photographic plate, marking the debut of satellite laser geodesy.

January 1965 -  Series of ballon flights began which measured moisture concentrations in the stratosphere.

Summer 1965 -  A new 6.6 meter ultraviolet vacuum spectrograph was installed at AFCRL for studies of the molecular structure of atmospheric gases.

November 1965 -  ARCRL assumed responsibility for the operation of NASA’s Wallops Island facility.  The radars were used for observations of atmospheric conditions associated with clear air turbulence.

March 30 , 1965 -  The OVI-5 satellite launched on this date measured radiation across the spectrum from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 -30 microns).

Winter 1966 -  AFCRL’s U-2 aircraft used for high-altitude meteorological observations since the late 1950’s was withdrawn for another mission.

May, 1967 -  The reinstrumentation of on of AFCRL’s KC-135’s as a fully-equipped flying infrared laboratory was completed

July 27, 1967 -  The Air Force satellite OVI-86 was launched.  It carried an AFCRL interferometer with a thermoelectrically cooled detector to permit more sensitive infrared measurements.

March, 1968 -  reorganization - Upper Atmosphere Physics Laboratory is renamed the Aeronomy Laboratory

August 1968 -  Rocket-borne experiments were launched from Brazil to measure the latitude variation in meteor flux.  The program used new techniques to overcome background contamination.

November 1968 -  A compilation of a complete set of atmospheric absorption line parameters was begun at AFCRL.

1969 -  First applications of the Fourier Fast Transform Techniques to Michelson interferometric spectroscopy, reducing computer time by two orders of magnitude.

Summer 1970 -  AFCRL closed its Haven Acres site for measurements of small-scale meteorological phenomena - new site opened at Donaldson, Minnesota, in 1971.

October 1970 -  A new balloon-borne gas laser measured the size distribution of aerosols at high altitude.

January 31, 1971 -  AFCRL’s Optical/Infrared Flying Laboratory made radiometric and spectral measurements of the plume of the Apollo 14 rocket booster during launch (repeated with Apollo 15)

December, 1971 -  A chemical decoy system to protect aircraft from heat-seeking missiles was flight-tested.

An initial version of the optical/infrared (OPTIR) computer code was developed.  It was designed to estimate the effects of nuclear detonations on optical/infrared detections systems.

1971 -  The report, “Earth Sciences Applied to Military Use of Terrain” was published… among topics discussed: Multi-spectral photography and thermal infrared imaging procedures.

October 16, 1972 -  The Satellite Meteorology Branch received the first pictures from the NOAA-2 satellite.  The combination of infrared and visual images transmitted permitted significant advance in satellite assessment of cloud cove.

Summer, 1973 -  Joint AFCRL/English experiments conducted to study turbulent transport of momentum and heat throughout the atmospheric boundary layer.

December, 1973 -  AFCRL developed a cloud-free, light-of-sight model to assist the development of weapons systems using optical, infrared, and laser sensors

January, 1974 -  The Optical Physics Division published a report on atmospheric transmittance for carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride laser systems.

July, 1974 -  Stratospheric Environment Project launched.  Its goal was to provide data needed by the Air Force in order to write environmental impact statements for the operations of the B-1 and F-15 aircraft.  { If nothing else it shows that all layers of the atmosphere were thoroughly studied.  This data is real, pretending there’s some profound flaws in their understanding is nothing less than a bias driven disconnect from physical reality and human abilities.}

September 1974 -  Three rocket probes from the Woomera Range in Australia extended the measurements of the infrared sky background (the HI-STAR Program) to the Southern Hemisphere.

November 1974 -  The Air Force announced Realignment and Reduction Actions.  As part of these Action, the Air Force directed that the geophysics research then being conducted at the Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) be transferred to Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

November, 1975 - The NASA Atmospheric Explorer (AE-E) satellite was launched.  It carried an AFCRL-designed spectrometer composed of 24 individual collimating grating monochrometers.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
... and the list goes on.  I’ll end this little exercise in 1975, at page 65 of 90, since the really interesting fundamental understanding happened during this earlier period - everything else has been built upon them accurately nailing down that fundamental understanding.

what should be done to address AGW?

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Posted: 20 July 2017 05:08 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 80 ]
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@ CCv3,

This may be of interest

Robots are branching out. A new prototype soft robot takes inspiration from plants by growing to explore its environment.

https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science-ticker/robot-grows-plant

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Art is the creation of that which evokes an emotional response, leading to thoughts of the noblest kind.
W4U

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Posted: 20 July 2017 06:25 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 81 ]
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Adamski - 19 July 2017 10:53 PM

what should be done to address AGW?

The absolute minimum requirement before anything of real substance can happen, is for people to stop pretending it’s not happening.

Human’s have an incredible ability to meet huge challenges if they put their collective minds together and go after a common goal.
Instead, most of our population is going about their lives as thought nothing hugely fundamental has been altered in our planet’s geophysical processes while lallygagging and pretending that creating terrorists and fighting terrorists and creating yet more terrorist is our highest duty.

Too many tipping points have been passed.  The physics allowed us a few decades to cut back GHG injections into our atmosphere, while we learned more about our Earth’s systems and the seriousness of what’s heading our way.  instead we didn’t want to know, still don’t.  Nothing, nothing, nothing of genuine substance will happen as things stand.  And humans don’t change, I’m told.

Honestly, we are heading into a territory that will feel more and more like hell.
Though we Americans glibly laugh it off because we aren’t at the receiving end as badly as the god forsaken poor in those shit nations around the ‘third world’ we love to ignore.  But you can be sure it will be coming to a coast and a forest and a farmland, and a city near you, before you know it..

As the next years and decades go by, we’ll be on our own death watch.  Speeded up by utter egomaniacal morons linked the Kochs’, Murdocks’, Trump, etc.  Along with the collective Willfully Ignorance of so many of our leaders and their subjects.

Wish I had more time for writing something a bit better, but gotta run.

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Posted: 11 August 2017 07:30 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 82 ]
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Awesome video, thanks Doug.  It definitely belongs in with this collection! 

Though I’m a bit irritated that after the various evenings I’ve spent looking for good YouTube video on the subject and never quite finding the right tone, most are too childish and gloss over important details - thanks to you I find this one and it’s been around for three years.
Hands down the best video explaining GHG physics I’ve seen.

DougC - 11 August 2017 12:15 AM

As I said, just as there is a quantum mechanical basis that modern electronics are entirely reliant on to work there is also a quantum mechanical basis that entirely underlies the science of human forced climate change.

How quantum mechanics explains global warming - Lieven Scheire
https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-quantum-mechanics-explains-global-warming-lieven-scheire

Anyone using transistor based communications to claim that there is no firm science supporting climate change is also stating that there is no firm science supporting the very platform they are using to make that claim.

Do I really need to state how completely irrational that position is?

Well done DC.

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