The argument from analogy, as explained by Richard Carrier. Refutes the primary assumptions of Pyrrhonism. http://richardcarrier.blogspot.com/2007/07/experimental-history.html
I’m going to talk about the latter today, giving more examples than I did at camp, because I’ve run into so many lately I just have to talk about them! In “experimental history” you basically recreate a historical circumstance and see what happens, and from that you can infer things about what happened in the past. This employs the same general principle that science also depends on: the argument from analogy. What works yesterday works the same today, what works on Earth works on Mars, what works in London works in Paris, what works today worked the same a thousand years ago. A physicist would not demand that Newton reproduce a demonstration of his laws of motion in Paris on the assumption that physics works differently in London, nor do we demand that Newton’s experiments be replicated every morning on the assumption that the laws of physics can change any day.
We accept this because we have abundant reasons to believe such deviations are highly improbable. Sometimes, it is true, analogies don’t hold. Yet because a violation of this rule is so rare, you need really good evidence to believe things were different or have changed before you can conclude that any given analogy doesn’t hold. The rate of fall of dropped objects is indeed lower on Mars than on Earth, and the elevation of the planet Mars is indeed different in London than it is in Paris. Yet we’ve accumulated plenty of evidence confirming that the circumstances in these cases are relevantly different. In fact, once we add those differing circumstances into our calculations, the corresponding differences in result vanish, and the analogy holds after all. Newton’s laws are actually the same on Mars as on Earth, and in fact this explains why objects fall faster here than there. And once we take into account the sphericity and rotation of the earth, the actual celestial declination of Mars turns out to be identical with respect to Paris or London. And so on.