War In The Middle East
I will answer your questions in the order that you give them.
The concept of “just war” was devised by “saint” Thomas Aquinas, proving again that christianity is not necessarily a religion of peace. There were two conditions for a “just war,” self-defense and pre-emption when an attack appears imminent. Under neither of these conditions is the war on Iraq a just war. The policy of “pre-emptive” war was picked up by the American neoconservatives (i.e. fascists) in a document called the National Security Strategy of 2002. The text was derived from an open letter sent to President Clinton in 1998 and signed by Paul Wolfowitz, Donald Rumsfeld, and Richard Perle, among others, all major players in the current war and its “plans.” However, I am not sure whether the House Republicans every formally accepted the doctrine.
The explosive power of bombs increases, always. Use of depleted uranium, cluster bombs, and so on is immoral and unjustified in all cases, not just when used against civilians. There is no reason for these weapons other than maximum damage and killing ability.
Of course there are unexploded bombs of various kinds left over from the first gulf war, though probably not many.
The concept of nation is useful for purposes of categorization, but makes little logical or ethical sense. There are no “pure” nations in the old sense of group of genetically and socially linked people. Take any nation and within its borders you will find too much diversity to say that they are all “american” or “iraqi” or “dutch.” Furthermore, it is clear that nationalism is one of the accelerants of warfare. It is not a cause, but it does feed the fires of warfare making it happen quicker. Only religion is a more effective accelerant. And the concept of nation propels the usual us vs. them thinking that maintains economic inequality on both the large and small scales. “Nation” is a bad idea, best done away with for the health of humanity and the planet.
The middle east cannot be “sorted out,” let alone sorted out without violence. This area of the world has been a firestorm of war and treachery for 5000+ years. The countries that exist now are patchwork and hodge-podge concoctions created by western nations with no concept of the history and cultures of the area. If it will be sorted out, it will be in centuries, not soon.
I hope youy find these answers stimulating.