Here are some new ideas based on our previous theoretical framework of hallucinations. We call them “six states of perception”.
In accordance with our previous analysis, by definition in modern psychology, hallucinations are perceptions that occur in the absence of external objective stimulation, namely, perceptions by internal false stimulation. According to this definition, perceptions can occur in two ways. One is that external objective stimulation affects perception through sensation, while the other is that internal false stimulation directly affects perception. For perception, the two ways lead to the same effects.
1. The normal waking state of consciousness
Only external objective stimulation.
2. Elementary hallucinations
External objective stimulation >> internal false stimulation.
3. Paradoxical hallucinations
External objective stimulation ≈ internal false stimulation.
The mixture of the two kinds of stimulation causes two conflicting experiences in perception simultaneously, and therefore leads to paradoxical and deranged apperceiving, resulting in out-of-body experiences and synesthesia.
4. Complete hallucinations
External objective stimulation << internal false stimulation.
ESP happens because there are two pathways to affect perception and the essence of ESP is that internal false stimulation is mistaken as external objective stimulation which happens through various senses and that external objective stimulation as perception which does not result from various senses.
Only internal false stimulation.
Dreams are not often treated as hallucinations. But according to the definition of hallucinations, that is, “perceptions that occur in the absence of external objective stimulation”, we holds that dreams, in nature, are a kind of hallucinations. Unlike common hallucinations whose cause is the reduction of self-awareness, the cause of the hallucinations in dreams is sensory deprivation. When sleeping, the sensations of the five senses shut down and the external stimulation to perception, which is far lower than that in the sensory deprivation experiment (especially the sense of touch), almost vanishes. Therefore, within a very short time, imaginary scenes can appear. It is because sensation shuts down in dreams that perception is affected only by internal false stimulation.
6. Dreamless sleep
No external objective stimulation, no internal false stimulation either.
No stimulation affects perception at all.
About Jhāna Samādhi
It is still unknown to the generation mechanism of jhāna samādhi. But according to the experiential descriptions of plenty of people who have such experiences, thinking activities halt due to the obliteration of self-awareness in jhāna samādhi. At the same time, perception shuts down to activate a new mode of apperceiving, one totally different from the usual five-sense mode of perception. One feels that he and the universe assimilate each other and everything in daily life, even himself, disappears. Such experiences are so-called mystical experiences. At this moment, both consciousness and the unconscious disappear, which we call a state of super-consciousness and super-perception.